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Paysage technologique — théories et pratiques autour du Global Positioning System
2009-02-05 09:24:23 - by Nicolas Malevé

“Capable de localiser les coordonnées spatiales et temporelles d’un récepteur en temps réel, le Global Positioning System permet d’automatiser la géolocalisation et peut ainsi produire des usages et des représentations parfois inédites du paysage. En dépit de ce caractère innovant, la navigation satellitaire s’inscrit simultanément dans une évolution plus importante qui procède depuis longtemps à des hybridations intenses entre différentes formes de technologies (techniques de transports comme la voiture ou technologies de l’information et de la communication comme les réseaux numériques) et le paysage. Celui-ci devient en conséquence de plus en plus technologique et ceci bien au-delà des nœuds spécifiques traditionnels comme la ville.

À travers différents concepts et dispositifs comme le parcours ou la machine, de nombreux artistes interrogent et expérimentent depuis une trentaine d’années ce « paysage technologique ». Cette expérimentation artistique s’est sans aucun doute élargie avec l’intrusion lente du GPS qui permet de représenter différemment le paysage, mais également de se représenter différemment dans ce paysage. En l’utilisant comme un moyen capable de capter des mobilités, de représenter le paysage et d’agir avec lui, le GPS, au delà de ses usages technologiques et de sa signification pour les transformations actuelles du paysage est en train de se transformer en un véritable instrument artistique.

Lire la suite du rapport final des recherches d’ Andrea Urlberger

Juste quelques punaises sur une carte ?
2009-01-12 16:09:06 - by Nicolas Malevé

ou quelques considérations critiques sur la cartographie criminelle.

Un article de Benoit Dupont, Lecturer in Policing Studies Charles Sturt University, qui détaille les difficultés pour les services de police de faire usage des technologies géolocatives. Les points relevés par ce chercheur en 2000 s’avèrent toujours d’actualité comme nous le rappelle ce papier de Libération ou ce post précédent.

On ne resiste pas au plaisir d’extraire cette anecdote :

« Lors d’une tentative de cartographie de la criminalité et de localisation des incidents en milieu rural, des policiers australiens furent équipés de systèmes GPS portatifs. L’intention était d’utiliser ces derniers pour relever la longitude et la latitude de l’incident ayant requis la présence de la police. Les policiers envoyés sur le lieu d’un accident de la route ou d’un crime allumaient dûment le récepteur GPS et retournaient ensuite au commissariat se trouvant à plusieurs kilomètres afin d’y rédiger leur rapport, recopiant les données lisibles sur l’écran de l’appareil. Bien sûr, la machine prenait en compte le trajet de retour vers le commissariat, et affichait maintenant les coordonnées de celui-ci ! Cette pratique perdura jusqu’à ce que l’on se rende compte du nombre anormalement élevé de crimes et de carambolages ayant pour cadre les locaux du commissariat. »

The brains of London cab drivers
2009-01-04 19:36:57 - by Nicolas Malevé

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«In a study that generated considerable media interest (and won her an Ig Nobel Prize), in 2000 Dr Eleanor Maguire scanned the brains of 16 London black-cab drivers, who had spent an average of two years learning ’the Knowledge’ – street names and routes in London. The taxi drivers had a larger right hippocampus than control subjects, and the longer they had been on the job, the larger their hippocampus was. These findings seem to indicate that the right hippocampus plays an important role in storing spatial memories.

[...]

"When we travel down a route we are familiar with, we often can’t see our destination. Instead, we have an image of it in our mind, and a mental map of how to get there. But this mental map is very different from a street map. I’m trying to understand how we create internal three-dimensional representation of space and our position within it."

She is also interested in another form of memory, linked to spatial memory, which appears to be mediated by the left, rather than the right hippocampus. "Having created an internal representation of large-scale space, how do we structure episodic memories – particular events and personal experiences that occurred at a specific time and place – within that environment?" »

Read more or watch the video on the National Geographic website

All streets
2008-12-10 10:18:30 - by Nicolas Malevé

All Streets, by Ben Fry
All streets: all of the streets in the lower 48 United States: an image of 26 million individual road segments. The last work of Ben Fry.

«The data in this piece comes from the U.S. Census Bureau’s TIGER/Line data files. The data is first parsed and filtered (to remove non-street features) using Perl. Next, using Processing, the latitude and longitude coordinates are transformed using an Albers equal-area conic projection (which gives it that curvy surface-of-the-Earth look that we’re used to), and then plotted to an enormous image that’s saved to the disk. »

Read more here for technical details and here to zoom in the project.

Où ? Ici, avec OSM !
2008-10-30 16:32:28 - by Pierre Huyghebaert

Pour répondre à une question récente (« Où se passera la semaine de workshop Busboitescartesmaps ? À Recyclart. ») d’une manière plus cartographique, utilisons Openstreemap dont la qualité ne cesse de progresser !

En utilisant le rendu Mapnik (proposé par défaut) :


View Larger Map

En utilisant le rendu OSmarender (proposé en alternative) :


View Larger Map

Et pour pousser plus loin la découverte de la modification de rendu à partir d’une base de donnée GIS : http://tile.openstreetmap.nl/ panman/styledit/

Busboîtescartesmaps
2008-10-28 16:34:48 - by Nicolas Malevé

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Post boxes are a familiar repetitive phenomenon in the urban landscape. Even when postoffices become privatized and disappear, these boxes remain firmly planted in the urban soil. Busboîtescartesmaps invites us to validate these entities as more than just utilitarian tools. Drifting from one box to another, the walks propose to climb them, to explore their musical qualities, to listen to the stories that echo from their interiors. Among other things the walks contribute to a collective mapping in which the trace of one walk echoes the existence of other walks. You can participate in the walks starting from Recyclart, where also the communal map can be consulted, and also the Atlas of subjective and collaborative maps of Brussels.

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Postbussen zijn een bekend wederkerig aspect van het urbane lanschap. Zelfs nu posterijen en agentschappen geprivatiseerd worden en langzamerhand steeds meer verdwijnen, blijven de bussen ferm gewordteld in de stadse aarde.

Busboîtescartesmaps nodigt ons uit om de bussen te herwaarderen als meer dan enkel nuttige gereedschappen. De wandelingen onderzoeken de bussen als potentiele muziekinstrumenten, als stadselementen die beklommen,kunnen worden en als dragers van verhalen en herinneringen. De wandelingen dragen bij aan een collectieve audio-mapping die de verschillende onderwerpen van de wanddelingen met elkaar verbindt. Je kunt meewandelen vanaf Recyclart, waar ook de gemeenschappelijke kaart kan worden bekeken / beluisterd, samen met de Atlas van subjectieve kaarten van Brussel.

Lees meer

Les boîtes postales implantées dans le paysage bruxellois sont des points de repère familiers. Si les bureaux de poste disparaissent graduellement avec la privatisation, les boîtes, elles, résistent et jalonnent le territoire. Busboîtescartesmaps est une invitation à prendre ces boîtes pour plus que de simples conteneurs utiles. En dérivant de l’une à l’autre, les différentes ballades proposées en feront des montagnes à escalader, des instruments sonores ou des antennes déclencheuses d’histoires et de narrations. Ces ballades feront en outre l’objet d’une mise en carte commune où chaque trajet pourra faire écho à un autre. On pourra participer à cette cartographie en partant de Recyclart, qui abritera aussi la carte commune ainsi qu’un espace de consultation dédié à un Atlas des cartes subjectives et collaboratives de Bruxelles.

En savoir plus

Manhattan’s Urban Fabric
2008-09-22 01:24:47 - by Nicolas Malevé

A project by Liz Kueneke that took place in Conflux, the annual New York festival for contemporary psychogeography.

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Kueneke Manhattan’s embroidering
“Manhattan’s Urban Fabric” is a public intervention which intends to show just a glimmer of this richness, and to make visible what normally remains invisible about a place: our opinions, impressions, and feelings about it. Participants answer various questions by sewing simple symbols into the map, and they are also welcome to embroider freely along the edges of the cloth. Through this work I want to offer a participatory experience to the people (and visitors) of Manhattan, which permits them to reflect upon their own use of the urban space. The project has two main goals. First, the communication between participants about personal memories and community issues is facilitated by the intimate act of “sharing a table” and commenting together about their shared city. Furthermore, the act of embroidering, which for some is a hobby, and for others a new experience, enhances the conversation. Second, the results obtained can be an important source of material for urban planning, or at the very least, as a jumping-off point to discussion. The patterns and nodes of responses created, can contribute to a wider understanding of the complexity of uses of the city.

See some documents of other works by Liz Kueneke at the Hangar’s website.

Database City, call for projects
2008-09-18 12:26:33 - by Nicolas Malevé

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Database City


Medialab-Prado issues a call for data visualization projects to be carried out within the context of the VISUALIZAR 08: Database City International Workshop, that will take place from 3rd to 18th November 2008 at Medialab-Prado (Madrid, Spain).
Submissions Deadline: October 5, 2008
Open call for collaborators: October 15, 2008

Data Visualization is a transversal discipline which harnesses the immense power of visual communication in order to explain, in an understandable manner, the relationships of meaning, cause and dependency which can be found among the great abstract masses of information generated by scientific and social processes.
Visualizar, one of Medialab-Prado’s lines of work, is directed by José Luis de Vicente, and is conceived as an open and participartory research project around theory, tools and strategies of information visualization.
VISUALIZAR’07 was held for the first time in November 2007 and explored the social, cultural and political possibilities of the art and science of data visualization. This year, VISUALIZAR’08: Database City will have the city as its sole focus.
For two weeks, lectures, presentations, and an intense project development programme will involve participants from all over the world in a collaborative process that will culminate in eight new proposals for the city.

VISUALIZAR’08: Representing Data Cities

Urban environments, which are becoming increasingly dense, complex and diverse, are one of contemporary society’s largest “databases”, daily generating volumes of information that require new methods of analysis and understanding.
How can we use the data visualization and information design resources to understand the processes governing contemporary cities and better manage them? What can we learn from studying traffic and pedestrian movement flows through the streets of Madrid? What would happen if we filled the streets with screens providing information updated each moment about water and electricity consumption?

The projects developed during VISUALIZAR’08 will explore questions such as:
What role to information networks and structures play in the construction of a modern city?
What can we learn about cities via the data flows generated by their everyday activity? Can we develop tools to visualize this data to help us improve urban design and management?
How can we integrate dynamic representation of information in buildings and urban spaces?
Several workshops objectives might include the development of:
Visualization tools that enable us to understand how citizens use urban spaces.
Visualization tools that map and represent big cities’ social and cultural diversity.
Visualization tools that show the relationship between networks and the urban spaces where they are located, be they service networks (traffic, public transport, electricity or water networks) or information networks (telephone networks, radio and television broadcasts, data networks).

Visualization tools that represent the activity in specific locations, and that display and integrate them as an architectonic element.

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Geonames
2008-09-15 09:36:05 - by Nicolas Malevé

"The GeoNames geographical database is available for download free of charge under a creative commons attribution license. It contains over eight million geographical names and consists of 6.5 million unique features whereof 2.2 million populated places and 1.8 million alternate names. All features are categorized into one out of nine feature classes and further subcategorized into one out of 645 feature codes. (more statistics ...).
The data is accessible free of charge through a number of webservices and a daily database export. GeoNames is already serving up to over 11 million web service requests per day."

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An example of this data being used: Walter Rafelsberger has worked on a vizualisation of the worlds cities with a population of more than 1000, [...]. Cities with more than 5 million inhabitants are labeled.

More than the sum of the parts
2008-09-10 11:47:14 - by Nicolas Malevé

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Sonia in action

In his PhD’s dissertation, Ben Shaw discusses «how shared representations enhance design collaboration. I draw on examples from my field study at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where real-time teams have radically accelerated the design of next generation exploratory spacecraft and science missions to Mars. My results highlight the roles representations play in generating possibilities, synthesizing perspectives and consolidating commitment to action, thereby helping collaborative groups bring about preferred futures.»

For his dissertation he created a few network animations of the Nasa designers team meetings.
«The behavior of these networks reflects important aspects of the interaction taking place in a design meeting at any given time, including the level of support and commitment expressed for different proposals, the extent to which participants engage one another’s points of view, and the degree of integration of shared representations in conversation. This behavior can be visualized using animated layout diagrams such as those below (produced with a program called SoNIA and viewed in Quicktime movies). The qualitative information conveyed by these diagrams can be complemented by applying numerical metrics to the network structures, as described in the dissertation.»

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